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  Australian Law Journal   (Australia)
  Volume 82, Number 2, February 2008
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  • CURRENT ISSUES — Editor: Mr Justice P W Young AO
  • The federal election
        p.71                                                                                        +cite    
  • Court support
        p.71                                                                                        +cite    
  • The jury system
        p.72                                                                                        +cite    
  • "Judge looks to simplify cases and cut costs"
        p.73                                                                                        +cite    
  • Don't ring the judge
        p.73                                                                                        +cite    
  • Who said it?
        p.73                                                                                        +cite    
  • Equity for accountants
        p.74                                                                                        +cite    

  • CONVEYANCING AND PROPERTY — Editor: Peter Butt
  • Transfer of mortgage does not transfer rights to sue under collateral agreements
        p.75                                                                                        +cite    
  • What is land "use"?
        p.76                                                                                        +cite    
  • Severance of joint tenancies
        p.77                                                                                        +cite    
  • Application of funds not authorised by power of attorney
        p.77                                                                                        +cite    

  • RECENT CASES — Editor: Mr Justice P W Young AO
  • Interest at common law
        p.79                                                                                        +cite    
  • Time and conveyancing contracts
        p.79                                                                                        +cite    
  • Strata titles: Right of one owner to exclude people from common property
        p.80                                                                                        +cite    
  • Drunkenness: Effect on contract
        p.80                                                                                        +cite    
  • Magistrates: Moonlighting
        p.80                                                                                        +cite    
  • Cost agreements
        p.80                                                                                        +cite    

  • ARTICLES
  • CONSTRUING UNDERTAKINGS AND COURT ORDERS
        John Tarrant
        p.82                                                                                        +cite        
        Court orders can be open to a number of interpretations and two different approaches have been taken by the courts on the issue of whether reference to the reasons for judgment is appropriate in construing court orders. On one view, unless a court order is ambiguous, it is not permissible to examine the reasons for judgment in interpreting the court order. On this view the judgment is considered to be extrinsic material. But a second line of authority has emerged that supports the proposition that court orders must always be examined in the context of the reasons for judgment. This approach recognises that judgments provide a primary source for interpreting court orders and are critical to the interpretation process. The purpose of this article is to examine the competing lines of authority in interpreting court orders and to examine the type of extrinsic material that is used in construing court orders. Specific issues that relate to interpretation of consent orders, undertakings and injunctions will also be examined.
  • FACILITATION PAYMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: A PROPOSAL TO MAKE CRIMINAL CODE, S 70.4, WORKABLE
        Ross P Buckley and Mark Danielson
        p.92                                                                                        +cite        
        Doing business abroad often requires the payment of minor sums to secure the provision of routine government services. Such payments are not meant to render Australian businesses liable under the provisions that make bribery of foreign public officials a crime in Australia. However, under the present legislation the availability of this defence is often uncertain. This article argues it is time to revisit the language of the defence and for the government to offer some simple services that would assist Australian businesses operating abroad.
  • RETRIBUTIVE JUSTICE VS RESTORATIVE JUSTICE: THE RWANDAN EXPERIENCE
        Angelina Gomez
        p.105                                                                                      +cite        
        This article investigates the possibilities of retributive and restorative justice approaches to the victim-perpetrator relationship by using an extreme example, that is, the 1994 Rwandan genocide, and the attempts made by Rwandans and the international community to establish the rule of law in its aftermath. This article argues that the breakdown of the rule of law and of Rwandan society that enabled the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, was brought about by a process of framing, that is, "ethnic framing". It will be argued that the act of framing dehumanised the framed object, the victim, to such an extent that violence, even genocide, was an acceptable reaction to it and dialogue with both sides is needed to rehumanise the framed. The effectiveness of retributive justice in transforming the victim- perpetrator relationship to destroy Rwanda's "ethnic framing" will be examined. Restorative justice, in particular, truth and reconciliation commissions, will also be considered as an alternative to retributive justice. The Rwandan hybrid of restorative and retributive justice, the Gacaca Courts, will also be briefly examined.